Comprehensive health care reform was passed by Congress in March 2010 after over a year of congressional debate. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was aimed at both reforming the private health insurance market and ensuring greater access to health insurance coverage. However, since the bill was signed into law it has been the subject of numerous federal lawsuits challenging its constitutionality. Most of these lawsuits have revolved around the law's individual mandate provisions--which requires that all non-exempt US citizens obtain minimum health insurance coverage. The bill has also been challenged by the actions of many state legislatures, which have sought to block the law from being implemented in their states. The litigation, taking place in numerous lawsuits in federal courts nationwide, have resulted in contradictory rulings from district and appellate courts, and will likely be addressed by the US Supreme Court in the future.

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